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Hendrick Vroom (1566-1640), View of Elsinore and Kronborg Castle c.1618/19, pen and brown ink on blue paper. Bequeathed by Sir Bruce Ingram, 1963, PD.885-1963

Vroom was one of the earliest Dutch painters of marine subjects. Based in Haarlem, a centre of artistic production, he produced paintings and designs for tapestries. These included The Defeat of the Spanish Armada (now destroyed) for Lord Howard of Effingham, and a series for the Province of Zeeland that illustrated significant early events from the Eighty Years War. His extensive travels around Europe brought him into danger: according to Vroom’s friend and biographer, the art historian Karel van Mander (1548-1606), he survived a shipwreck on his way to Spain. This particular view shows the churches of St Olav and St Mary, the old 'Tolhuis' and Kronborg Castle in Elsinore, or Helsingør, Denmark, which Vroom visited around 1618.

 


Attributed to Jan Porcellis (c.1584-1632), Warships in a rough sea c.1625-31, graphite with grey wash on paper. Bequeathed by Sir Bruce Ingram, 1963, PD.601-1963

 

The Dutch painter and writer, Samuel van Hoogstraten (1627-78) described Porcellis as the ‘great Raphael of sea-painting’. Born in Ghent, Porcellis spent much of his life travelling between Antwerp, Amsterdam and Haarlem, where he became the pupil of Hendrick Vroom. 
While in Haarlem from 1622 to 1624 Porcellis became familiar with the developments in tonal landscape painting pioneered by Esaias van de Velde (1587-1630). Like him, Porcellis was especially accomplished at depicting atmospheric effects with a monochrome palette. Using graphite he expertly conveys the sea’s misty conditions and its choppy waves.

 


Cornelis Claesz van Wieringen (1575/77-1633), Sailboats off a jetty in a breeze c.1630, pen, brown ink and grey wash on paper. Bequeathed by Sir Bruce Ingram, 1963, PD.566-1963

 

Van Wieringen was based in Haarlem and may have trained under Hendrick Vroom, whom he was to rival. In 1622 the Admiralty commissioned Van Wieringen to paint the Battle of Gibraltar (Het Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam) which was presented to Prince Maurice, stadtholder of the Dutch Republic.
In contrast to his paintings, his lively drawings usually depict non-historical subjects as he preferred to use pen and ink to capture scenes of everyday life on the sea. This is one of his largest and finest works on paper, which may have been intended as a study for a print. It depicts a certain type of sailing vessel called veerschuit, which ferried people across inland waterways.

 


Attributed to Cornelis Claesz, van Wieringen (1575/77-1633), Shipping in a rough sea, black chalk, pen, Indian ink, heightened with white on paper. Bequeathed by Sir Bruce Ingram, 1963, PD.914-1963

 

Van Wieringen was based in Haarlem and may have trained under Hendrick Vroom, whom he was to rival. In 1622 the Admiralty commissioned Van Wieringen to paint the Battle of Gibraltar (Het Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam) which was presented to Prince Maurice, stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. In contrast to his paintings, his lively drawings usually depict non-historical subjects as he preferred to use pen and ink to capture scenes of everyday life on the sea. This is one of his largest and finest works on paper, which may have been intended as a study for a print. It depicts a certain type of sailing vessel called veerschuit, which ferried people across inland waterways.

 


Simon de Vlieger (c.1600/01-53), Coast scene with a large rock c.1645-51, black chalk, some graphite and greyish wash on paper. Bequeathed by Sir Bruce Ingram, 1963, PD.864-1963

 

De Vlieger lived much of his life in the major port cities of Rotterdam and Amsterdam as a painter of seascapes and landscapes. He was an especially prolific draughtsman; the gentleman marine painter Jan van de Cappelle (1626-79) owned around 1,300 of his drawings alone. Famous for his coastal seascapes, the focus here is the large solitary rock. The ships and boats are almost incidental. From the late 1640s De Vlieger’s seascapes show the influence of the rocky landscapes of Roelandt Savery (1576-1639) which were often dotted with tall pine trees, similar to those seen here on the right.

 


Attributed to Simon de Vlieger (c.1600/01-53), A group of fisherfolk c.1640s, pen and sepia ink, sepia wash, on paper, laid down. Given by Louis Colville Gray Clarke, 1948, PD.4-1948

 

There has been some doubt over the attribution of this drawing to De Vlieger. The technique of using pen and ink with brown wash was typical of Rembrandt and was used by artists within his circle. This study was once considered to be by Philips de Koninck (1619-88), one of Rembrandt’s pupils. From the mid-1630s onwards, however, De Vlieger’s work shows a familiarity with Rembrandt’s style. He increasingly used pen and ink for his rapidly drawn beach views. A close-up study of fishermen, De Vlieger shows a man gutting a fish which the woman may be about to purchase.

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