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Japanese handmade paper, toned to blend with the colour of the original parchment, was chosen as the best material with which to repair the tears and enlarged sewing holes in the spine folds.  The parchment along the folds of the outer bifolia of each quire had become partially gelatinised by the heat and moisture of the hide glue applied in the eighteenth century, leaving the membranes brittle in localised areas.  Japanese paper repair patches were strong enough to hold these damaged edges together and moulded more easily to the contours of the parchment in small patches than patches of new parchment. 

The repair patches were traced out on the Japanese paper using a metal point to give a soft torn edge and adhered with purified wheat-starch paste.  Patches were applied to both sides of the damaged area and rubbed down thoroughly to ensure a good bond before being dried around folds of blotter once again.  


A lightbox allows the repair patch to be traced out with great accuracy in the Japanese handmade paper using a metal point.

The repair patches have soft edges which blend well with the original parchment.


Detail of the spine folds following repair of the entire manuscript.